The association between vulvovaginal candidiasis and hormonal contraceptive use in the outpatient clinic of Dr Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya in 2017-2020: A retrospective study

Authors

  • Azalia Aprinda Bahat Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga/ Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Dwi Murtiastutik Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya – Indonesia
  • Trisniartami Setyaningrum Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya – Indonesia
  • Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya – Indonesia
  • Sawitri Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya – Indonesia
  • Budi Utomo Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya - Indonesia

Keywords:

hormonal contraceptives, sexually transmitted infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis

Abstract

Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). With the increasing use of hormonal contraceptives, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate the role of hormonal contraceptives on the occurrence of VVC. This study aims to explore the association between hormonal contraceptive use and VVC.   Methods This retrospective unmatched case-control study enrolled patients from the STI outpatient clinic of the the Dr. Soetomo Regional General Hospital Surabaya in 2017-2020.   Results A total of 308 patients presented to the clinic, 132 (42.9%) of whom had VVC, and 84 (27.3%) of whom used hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptive use may increase the odds of developing VVC by 3.4-folds (95% CI: 1.97-5.89; p<0.001), independent of STI history and immunodeficiency disorders. In addition, oral contraceptive pills may increase the odds by 2.3-folds (95% CI: 1.25-4.34; p=0.008), while other hormonal contraceptives such as injectable or implants may increase the odds by 8.7-folds (95% CI: 3.13-24.28; p<0.001). Patients using hormonal contraceptives had a probability of suffering from VVC of 58.8%, while those of patients using OCPs and other hormonal contraceptives were 49.5% and 78.6%, respectively.   Conclusion This study proves that hormonal contraceptives is a risk factor to the occurrence of VVC.  

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Published

2024-04-21

How to Cite

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Bahat AA, Murtiastutik D, Setyaningrum T, Listiawan MY, Sawitri, Utomo B. The association between vulvovaginal candidiasis and hormonal contraceptive use in the outpatient clinic of Dr Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya in 2017-2020: A retrospective study. J Pak Assoc Dermatol [Internet]. 2024Apr.21 [cited 2024May22];34(2):374-83. Available from: https://jpad.com.pk/index.php/jpad/article/view/2534

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