A review of the literature on intra-lesional immunotherapeutic intervention for the treatment of recalcitrant warts


  • Ghada Mohammed Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
  • Mohammed Saleh Al-Dhubaibi Dermatology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia.
  • Saleh Salem Bahaj Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of medicine and health sciences, Sana’a University, Yemen
  • Ahmed Ibrahim AbdElneam (1). Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. (2) Molecular Genetics and Enzymology Department, Human Genetics and genome research institute, National Research Center, 33 El Bohouth St. (former El Tahrir St.), Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt.


Intra-lesional, Recalcitrant warts


Abstract: Immunotherapeutic intervention has become a crucial treatment modality for the intervention of warts. Immunotherapeutic intervention for warts is typically limited to stubborn lesions. Conventional therapy is not working even though there are numerous immunotherapeutic agents available. Only a few treatment modalities seem to be particularly efficient. Furthermore, evidence-based research is scarce. Data on their efficiency 5-Fluorouracil is typically performed with systemic immunotherapeutic regimens, activated vitamin D, Bleomycin, Interferon (αandγ), Corynebacterium parvum, trichophyton antigen, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, Candida albicans antigen, Mycobacteria; all of these therapeutic approaches have been disclosed to be beneficial for numerous forms of warts. The major part of the mentioned therapies' safety and efficacy have not been assessed in double-blind, controlled clinical studies, attempting to make the reliability and validity of a number of the enumerated therapeutic interventions challenging to assess. This report discusses various types of intra lesional Immunotherapeutic intervention for warts.


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How to Cite

Mohammed G, Al-Dhubaibi MS, Bahaj SS, AbdElneam AI. A review of the literature on intra-lesional immunotherapeutic intervention for the treatment of recalcitrant warts. J Pak Assoc Dermatol [Internet]. 2023Aug.7 [cited 2024May22];33(3):1081-9. Available from: https://jpad.com.pk/index.php/jpad/article/view/2212



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