Issues related to topical immunotherapy for the treatment of warts: A review of the literature


  • Ghada Farouk Mohammed Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Sexology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
  • Mohammed Saleh Al-Dhubaibi Dermatology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia
  • Saleh Salem Bahaj Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of medicine and health sciences, Sana’a University, Yemen
  • Ahmed Ibrahim AbdElneam [1] Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia [2] Molecular Genetics and Enzymology Department, Human Genetics and genome research institute, National Research Center, 33 El Bohouth St. (former El Tahrir St.), Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt


Topical immunotherapy, warts


Immunotherapy has emerged as a critical therapeutic tool for the treatment of warts. Immunotherapy for warts is currently restricted to recalcitrant lesions. Conventional therapy is not working despite the fact that there are numerous immunotherapeutic agents available. A small number of regimens appear to be extremely effective. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evidence-based research. Data on their efficiency topical immunotherapeutic modalities commonly used in the treatment have all been reported as effective treatment modalities for different types of warts. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, their safety and effectiveness have not been evaluated in double-blind, controlled clinical trials, making the reproducibility of many of the listed treatments difficult to analyze and a possible placebo effect difficult to rule out. The different types of immunotherapy for warts are mentioned in this report.


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How to Cite

Ghada Farouk Mohammed, Mohammed Saleh Al-Dhubaibi, Saleh Salem Bahaj, Ahmed Ibrahim AbdElneam. Issues related to topical immunotherapy for the treatment of warts: A review of the literature: . J Pak Assoc Dermatol [Internet]. 2023Mar.5 [cited 2023Nov.28];33(1):244-50. Available from:



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