Clinicopathological study of cutaneous vasculitides

Md. Mostaque Hassan Chowdhury, Md. Qamrul Hassan Jaigirdar, ATM Asaduzzaman, Md. Mostaque Mahmud, Agha Masood Choudhury, Harashit Kumar Paul

Abstract


Objective To study the different patterns of cutaneous vasculitides along with their underlying etiologic factors and to assess the clinicopathological correlation.

 

Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on 30 consecutive patients, histologically diagnosed as cutaneous vasculitis in the department of dermatology and venereology, BSMMU, Dhaka. All patients were subjected to a baseline workup consisting of complete hemogram, serum-creatinine levels, liver function tests, chest X-ray, urine (routine and microscopic) examination besides antistreptolysin O titer, antinuclear antibody assay, rheumatoid factor assay, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and hepatitis B and C. Histopathological examination was done in all patients while immunofluorescence was done in 9 patients.

 

Results Out of a total of 30 patients diagnosed histologically as cutaneous vasculitis, 22 were classified as cutaneous small vessel vasculitis (CSVV), 6 as Heinoch-Schonlein purpura, and one each as urticarial vasculitis, and Behcet’s syndrome. Approximately 30% of the patients had a significant drug history, 23.3% were attributed to infection. No cause was found in 46.7% cases. Only 9 patients could undergo direct immunofluorescence (DIF), out of which 4 were positive for vasculitis.

 

Conclusion Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis was the commonest type of vaculitis presenting to the dermatology outpatient department. The workup of patients with cutaneous vasculitis includes detailed history, clinical examination and investigations to rule out multisystem involvement followed by skin biopsy and DIF at appropriate stage of evolution of lesions. Follow up of these patients is very essential as cutaneous manifestations may be the forme fruste of serious systemic involvement.


Keywords


Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, urticarial vasculitis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Behcet’s syndrome

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References


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