Spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus and their association with duration of diabetes mellitus: An observational study in a tertiary care hospital of South India.

Swapna Kameti, Senthil Kumar A L, Vijaya Mohan Rao A, Penchala Reddy P, C Aruna

Abstract


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide problem and the most common endocrine disorder. Cutaneous manifestations of DM generally appear subsequent to the development of the disease, but they may be the first presenting sign or even precede the primary disease manifestation by many years. Aim: To study the prevalence and patterns of cutaneous manifestations among diabetic patients and their association with duration of DM. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal cross-sectional study was performed on patients attending the out patient department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy of a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 200 patients with dermatological compliants having pre-existing diabetes and patients in whom diabetes was diagnosed later were included in the study. Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and SPSS 21 software. Results: Majority of  patients belonged to the age group 40-59 years (63%) with female preponderance (58.5%). Cutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.5% cases. The diabetic status was uncontrolled in 73% cases. Among the various cutaneous manifestations observed, cutaneous infections (52%) were most commonly observed, especially in early diabetics of upto 5 years duration and dermatoses due to chronic degenerative complications were observed in long standing diabetics which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cutaneous manifestations may be the first clue to underlying diabetic diathesis. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM and thereby play an important role in improvement of quality of life and management strategy of diabetic patients.


Keywords


Cutaneous manifestations; diabetes mellitus; infections; South India

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References


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